Murallas de Pamplona (Navarra)

plano general de las muarallas de Pamplona Luneta de Santa Ana Bastion of la Victoria Citadel park Bastion of Santiago Ravekub of Santa Isabel Contraguardia de Santa Isabel Counterguard of Santa María Ravelin of Santa Clara Counterguard of Santa Clara Baluarte Real Bastion of San Antón Ravelin of Santa Lucia The Glacis Weapons building The magazine Auditorio y Palacio de Congresos Baluarte Guards’ quarters Oven Mixed pavilion Gateway of the Socorro
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RAVELIN OF SANTA ANA

New counterguards were built during the time of Viceroy Benavides (17th century) with their ravelins facing the countryside, in accordance with the military defence systems created by the renowned engineer, Vauban. Among them, albeit without a counterguard to protect them, is the entrenched position (luneta) of Santa Ana. The restoration project of the luneta of Santa Ana, which protects the Bastions of Santiago and La Victoria, has already been drawn up.

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BASTION OF LA VICTORIA

This constitutes one of the five bastions designed in 1571 by the engineer, Giacomo Palearo (El “Fratín”) for each point of the Citadel (pentagonal). Although the Citadel had already been completed by 1646 when it was visited by Philip IV, we can see today that the bastion of La Victoria has lost much of its original geometry. In 1888, following the transfer of military lands for the urban expansion area of the city, it was almost entirely demolished together with that of San Antón and the ravelin of Santa Teresa.

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CITADEL PARK

Transformed into a landscaped recreational area, five buildings remain inside it that house different cultural exhibitions. All of them (the Guard’s Quarters, the Weapons Building, the Mixed Pavilion, the Magazine and the Oven), which were originally destined for military use, were restored after the transfer of the Citadel by the Army to the City Council of Pamplona in 1964. Today the Citadel also houses an open-air museum featuring the finest contemporary sculpture.

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BASTION OF SANTIAGO

This constitutes one of the five bastions designed in 1571 by the engineer, Giacomo Palearo (El “Fratín”) for each point of the pentagon that made up the Citadel. Protected by the ravelins of Santa Isabel and Santa Ana and the counterguard of Santa Isabel, it was one of the three bastions facing the countryside – the area from where the enemy could attack. It was completed in 1646, the year in which the Citadel was visited by Philip IV.

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RAVELIN OF SANTA ISABEL

New counterguards were built during the time of Viceroy Benavides (17th century) with their ravelins facing the countryside, in accordance with the military defence systems created by the renowned engineer, Vauban. Among them is the ravelin of Santa Isabel, on whose front is found a coat of arms of the Viceroy with an inscription showing the date of construction of the ravelin and the Viceroy in question as 1685. Restoration work is expected to get underway by summer 2010.

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COUNTERGUARD OF SANTA ISABEL

New counterguards were built during the time of Viceroy Benavides (18th century) with their ravelins facing the countryside, in accordance with the military defence systems created by the renowned engineer, Vauban. Among them is the counterguard of Santa Isabel, built in 1685. The restoration project for the entire set of defences of Santa Isabel has already been drawn up. Work is expected to get underway by summer 2010.

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BASTION OF SANTA MARÍA

This constitutes one of the five bastions designed in 1571 by the engineer, Giacomo Palearo (El “Fratín”) for each point of the pentagon that made up the Citadel. Protected by the ravelins of Santa Isabel and Santa Ana and the counterguard of Santa Isabel, it was one of the three bastions facing the countryside – the area from where the enemy could attack. It was completed in 1646, the year in which the Citadel was visited by Philip IV.

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RAVELIN OF SANTA CLARA

New counterguards were built during the time of Viceroy Benavides (17th century) with their ravelins facing the countryside, in accordance with the military defence systems created by the renowned engineer, Vauban. Among them is the ravelin of Santa Clara, on whose front is found a coat of arms of the Viceroy with an inscription showing the date of construction of the ravelin and the Viceroy in question as 1685. The Santa Clara defences will continue being restored until July 2010.

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COUNTERGUARD OF SANTA CLARA

New counterguards were built during the time of Viceroy Benavides (17th century) with their ravelins facing the countryside, in accordance with the military defence systems created by the renowned engineer, Vauban. Among them is the counterguard of Santa Clara, built in 1685. The Santa Clara defences, which are currently under being reconstructed, will continue being restored until July 2010.

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ROYAL BASTION

This constitutes one of the five bastions designed in 1571 by the engineer, Giacomo Palearo (El “Fratín”) for each point of the pentagon that made up the Citadel. Protected by the ravelins of Santa Teresa and Santa Clara, it once housed the artillery of the finest calibre and scope (well-located and with a Royal Knight in the centre that enabled it to dominate over the fortress). It was completed in 1646, the year in which the Citadel was visited by Philip IV.

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BASTION OF SAN ANTÓN

This constitutes one of the five bastions designed in 1571 by the engineer, Giacomo Palearo (El “Fratín”) for each point of the pentagon that made up the Citadel. Although the Citadel had already been completed by 1646 when it was visited by Philip IV, we can see today that the Bastion of La Victoria has lost much of its original geometry. In 1888, following the transfer of military lands for the urban expansion area of the city, it was almost entirely demolished together with that of la Victoria and the ravelin of Santa Teresa.

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RAVELIN OF SANTA LUCÍA

Built at the end of the 17th century and recovered in the course of work on the bus station, completed in 2007, it was one of the outer defences of the Citadel that protected it from possible attack from outside.

Ciudadela

THE GLACIS

This is the name given to the open land surrounding modern fortifications that formed a gentle slope (in the opposite direction to the moats) and totally free of obstacles and vegetation to make it difficult for the enemy to approach. It just reached the edge of the covered way. In Pamplona, this land forms what is now the Vuelta del Castillo – the large green space in the city comprising 280,000 square metres and the city’s main lung.

Ciudadela

WEAPONS BUILDING

This building was built in 1725 according to the renovation project drawn up by the famous Verboom for the Citadel and City Walls. It has four floors and was used as an artillery store. It now houses art and cultural exhibitions. Together with the Guards’ Quarters, the Magazine, the Oven and the Mixed Pavilion, it was one of the five buildings that were respected and restored when the Citadel was donated by the Army to the City Council in 1964.

Ciudadela

THE MAGAZINE

Built in 1695 by the engineer, Hércules Torrelli, it is the oldest building within the walled complex. It now houses art exhibitions. Together with the Guards’ Quarters, the Weapons Building, the Oven and the Mixed Pavilion, it was one of the five buildings that were respected and restored when the Citadel was donated by the Army to the City Council in 1964.

Ciudadela

ABALUARTE AUDITORIUM AND CONFERENCE CENTRE

Finished in 2003 and with a surface area of 63,000 square metres, this is one of the largest auditoriums and conference centres in Spain. It was built by the Regional Government of Navarra and designed by the architect, Francisco J. Mangado. Located above the area that was once used for the Citadel’s defences, the remains of the ravelin of Santa Teresa were discovered with their foundations and lower counterguards during the course of excavation and building work.

Ciudadela

GUARDS’ QUARTERS

The main gateway of the Citadel, dating from the end of the 16th century, is that which opens out on to what is now Avenida del Ejército. On it can be seen an inscription dated 1571, commemorating Viceroy Vespasiano Gonzaga, who built the fortress. After the bastions of San Antón and La Victoria were demolished in 1888, the moat was filled in and the drawbridge removed. On the inside is the guards’ quarters, currently used as a storeroom and municipal office space.

Ciudadela

OVEN

The former bread oven of the fortification is today an exhibition centre and comprises innovative installations. Together with the Guards’ Quarters, the Weapons Building, the Magazine and the Mixed Pavilion, it was one of the five buildings that were respected and restored when the Citadel was donated by the Army to the City Council in 1964.

Ciudadela

MIXED PAVILION

A former granary, it was remodelled and covered after 1725 with bombproof vaults. It is now used as another of the exhibition areas in the Citadel. Together with the Guards’ Quarters, the Weapons Building, the Magazine and the Oven, it was one of the five buildings that were respected and restored when the Citadel was donated by the Army to the City Council in 1964.

Ciudadela

GATEWAY OF THE “SOCORRO”

The Gateway of the “Socorro”, which in fact comprises three successive gateways with their corresponding wooden (stable) bridges and drawbridges, dates from the year 1720. It was in that year when it was moved from its original location, beside the flank of the bastion of Santa María, to the present one, by the curtaining. The aim was to defend it from the two bastions that protected it – those of Santa María and Santiago. The chapel is to be found in its original location and is now available for weddings.

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