Tourist Routes / Inner Citadel

recorridos turísticos Cuerpo de Guardia Auditorio y Palacio de Congresos Baluarte Baluarte de San Antón Baluarte Real Baluarte de Santa María Baluarte de Santiago Baluarte de la Victoria Luneta de Santa Ana Revellín de Santa Isabel Contraguardia de Santa Isabel Revellín de Santa Clara Contraguardia de Santa Clara Puerta del Socorro Sala de Armas El Polvorín Horno Pabellón de Mixtos Parque de la Ciudadela Revellín de Santa Lucía Glacis

To ensure loyalty to the King of Navarre and the defence of the city, Philip II ordered a modern-style fortress to be built: the Citadel. One of his finest engineers, the Italian Giacomo Palearo (El Fratín), was put in charge of the project. In 1571, Viceroy Vespasiano Gonzaga laid the first stone: new artillery played an essential role and military engineering could not risk being left behind. Its original layout – a pentagon with a bastion at each corner – was retained throughout the years, although continued improvements were introduced in the form of new ravelins, counterguards and moats.