History / 1571-1600

mapa de las murallas de Pamplona en 1.600 Bastión junto al Molino de Caparroso Baluarte que cubre el Catillo y la puerta de la Tejería Castillo de Santiago Baluarte de San Nicolás Medios baluartes de tierra junto a la Ciudadela Medios baluartes de tierra junto a la Ciudadela Baluarte de San Antón Baluarte del Real Baluarte de Santa María Baluarte de Santiago Baluarte de la Victoria Bastión antiguo de San Antón Bastión de San Llorente Bastión de Santa Engracia(se desmantela) Baluarte de la Taconera Baluarte de Gonzaga Bastión bajo al Palacio Viejo Baluarte de la puerta del Abrevador Bastión de la Tesorería

For Philip II, the design of the fortifications of Pamplona is of paramount importance.

One of his finest military engineers, the Italian, Giacomo Palearo (Jacobo Palear) – known El Fratín – is entrusted to carry out the project to fortify Pamplona “in the modern style”. To do so, he imitates the pentagonal fortresses built in Turin and Antwerp.

In 1571, Viceroy Vespasiano Gonzaga, a learned man and a great authority on the art of attacking and defending military fortresses, lays the first stone.

At the end of 1588, Tiburcio Spannocchi is in Pamplona. He is one of the great experts of Philip II (who reigned between 1556 and 1598) on fortifications. He suggests improvements both in the Citadel and in the walled complex, which he embodies in a scale model.

King Philip II and his son, Prince Philip, visit Pamplona in 1592 to swear the oath of allegiance to the Fueros del Reino (Special Privileges of the Kingdom) and also to inspect the citadel in person and check the state of the work. He gains a very high impression of it.

In 1601, Spannocchi is appointed “Chief Engineer of the Kingdoms of Spain” by Philip III, which means the overseeing and supervision of all fortifications of the Mother Country and Overseas.

1571. The Battle of Lepanto takes place.
1568-1648. The Dutch Revolt. The Low Countries gain independence from Spain.
1588. Philip II creates the Spanish Armada to support the invasion of England.

1609. Philip III orders the expulsion of the Moors.
1605. Cervantes publishes “Don Quixote”.

1643. France. Louis XIV ascends the throne.